Working with development and commercial property funding, price is often an obstacle that I come up against. Many people are unaware of and have limited understanding when it comes to risk-based pricing with banks. When they uncover what that is and what the price could be, it can come as a bit of a shock.
In simple terms, risk-based pricing is where the return for funding varies relative to the risk profile of that transaction. I say return as it encompasses both fees and interest rates. Banks (and almost all funders) are required to allocate capital (money) to transactions and the quantity of capital allocated is determined by the risk profile of the transaction. The riskier the deal, the more capital required and therefore the higher return (rates & fees) demanded. What is often forgotten is that banks are publicly traded entities with an obligation to return the maximum profit for shareholders.
All lenders will have internal based return targets. In main banks these will sit somewhere around 25% – 35% and some external lenders may even be higher. What’s important to remember is that this is a targeted return on capital allocated to a transaction (that is hard currency held in reserve – note fractional banking). Remembering that capital adequacy ratios are as low as 8% (for effectively risk-free transactions) meaning that for every $100.00 lent out there is $8.00 held in reserve. So, a 6% return on a $100.00 loan is actually a 75% return relative to capital allocated ($6.00 on $8.00). This varies again though with risk as the capital allocation increases.
All Commercial Business, Commercial Property and Property Development transactions carry with them a risk-based pricing approach that varies from transaction to transaction. There is a huge number of things that affect risk and banks take into account all of these things.
When a bank is assessing risk they first and foremost are reviewing a probability of default; what is the likelihood that the borrower will default on this transaction. This can encompass a huge array of things but is usually broken into two areas – sponsor risk and transaction risk.
Who is the party behind the transaction? Do they have the capacity to inject capital into the transaction/project/business to avoid an event of default? What experience do they have? What is their integrity? Do they have a history with the lender?
Effectively the bank is looking at the borrower and asking themselves what the likelihood of their success is and if in the event of failure, do they have the willingness AND means to avoid default. For this reason, there can be real value in the relationships you have with your lenders/banks. Don’t underestimate these.
Transaction risk is a little bit more long-winded as the transactions can vary so much. Despite this there are some core principals in business which apply in general terms.
For businesses their growth profile may be assessed (growth takes capital). For property deals they may be looking the lease terms, tenancy profiles or even the profile of the pre-sales in a development.
The lender is effectively taking an objective position on the success of the transaction.
The second key driver in price is the risk of loss (albeit in the non-bank market this can also be a driver to the actual transaction also). The less likely a lender is going to lose money on a transaction, the better the transaction is likely to be priced.
This is simply a measure of the security available. Most people will be aware of the amounts banks are willing to lend against certain assets (80% against an owner occupied home, 70% against an investment, 65% against commercial). The lower the gearing however, the less likelihood of a loss (a bank may take a 20% haircut on the fire sale of a property/movement in the market. It is much less likely to take a 50% haircut).
Regarding all criteria, remember that this is all relative to the current market and trends. The current market is buoyant and as such, banks have lent a lot in recent times resulting in them reducing their risk appetite (less risky transactions) and also placing more of a focus on profitability (higher rates and fees).
We are no longer in a race to the bottom with loose lending and price wars (at least not in commercial/property development). Banks now have capital restrictions and are seeking the best possible reward for risk.
Next time you are considering a transaction, consider what you might do to lessen the risk profile and therefore your price. As always, if you want to talk it through we're happy to chat. Give us a call today.